Although the perfect method of raising children is yet to be discovered, the great idealists of the past have developed theories that may assist parents of this age and the future. Some have even compiled a list of stages that young children go though, which may assist parents in understanding what their child is going through. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt, which is the second stage in Erikson’s theory, occurs between the ages of 2-3 years old, during which, parents should create a supportive environment. In this stage, children learn self-control, self-confidence, empathy, and anxiety. Like Erik Erikson; Jean Piaget, Sigmund Freud, and Alfred Adler have their own theories and stages for raising children.