Soil and vegetable world.
For soil means the surface layer that covers the earth’s crust, resulting from the alteration of a bedrock (the lithosphere, LOWE), called the parent rock, chemical action, physical and biological agents carried by all present on the surface and bodies of it. The soil can include both sediment and regolith. It is also called pedosphere (from the greek πέδον, pedon, soil, land and σφαίρός, sfaíros, sphere) when considered as part of the geosphere.
The soil is composed of a solid part (the organic and mineral component), a liquid and a gas part. During its evolution, soil differs along its profile a number of horizons. The most common identifiable horizons, for example, a surface organic horizon (sometimes topped with a layer of decomposed litter), in which the content of organic matter together with mineral particles reaches a significant percentage (eg 5% -10%), eluviations an underlying horizon, where the percolation of rainwater has eluviations part of the mineral particles for leaving prevalently silty or sandy, and the underlying horizon corresponding illuviazione, where these fine particles (clay) were accumulated. The processes that originate soil are still diverse, and it is possible a characterization of soils in close correlation to climate regimes. This is however not the only type of classification. Pedology is the science that studies the composition, genesis and alteration of soil due to both biotic and abiotic factors. The chemistry of the soil is rather a discipline that deals with the study and characterization of chemical and physical-chemical soil.
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